A column on personal finance prepared by the Virginia Society of Certified Public Accountants


(November 21, 2003) – April 15 may be the most memorable tax date of the year. However, if you want to save on next year’s taxes, the Virginia Society of CPAs recommends that you start planning in December. Here are ten tasks to consider before year-end to minimize your 2003 tax bill:

1. Balance Gains and Losses

Tally up your investment winners and losers for 2003. Then, determine whether it makes sense to take tax losses by selling your unattractive stocks. If your losses exceed your gains, you can deduct up to $3,000 in capital losses ($1,500 for married couples filing separately) against your other income, reducing the amount on which you must pay taxes. Losses in excess of $3,000 can be rolled over into subsequent years.

2. Defer Income

If you’re self-employed or have sideline income, consider deferring income into 2004 by delaying billing. Employees don’t have a choice of when they get paid, but if you’re in line for a year-end bonus, you might ask your employer to hold off until January. Of course, it only makes sense to defer income if you expect to be in the same or lower tax bracket next year.

3. Maximize Miscellaneous Itemized Deductions

Items such as tax preparation fees, job-hunting expenses, certain unreimbursed employee business expenses, and some investment costs are deductible as miscellaneous itemized expenses. To qualify, they must exceed 2 percent of your adjusted gross income (AGI). For example, if your AGI is $50,000 and you've already incurred the minimum of $1,000 in miscellaneous deductions, you’ve met the 2 percent floor and should check into accelerating additional miscellaneous deductions into 2003.

4. Save on Mortgage Payments

If you itemize deductions, consider paying your January 2004 mortgage payment by December 31, 2003 to deduct the interest this year. Be sure your check arrives at the bank or other financial institution by year-end to have the payment reflected on Form 1098.

5. Make Charitable Contributions

Giving money to a charity is a great way to save on taxes and help others. If you itemize, your contribution is tax-deductible. Just be sure to get your donation postmarked or in the hands of your favorite charity by December 31 and to obtain a receipt for donations of $250 or more.

6. Contribute the Maximum to Your Retirement Accounts

If you haven’t contributed the maximum to your tax-deferred 401k retirement savings account, some employers allow you to catch up for the current year. For 2003, you can contribute a maximum of $12,000 ($14,000 if you're over 50 years of age by the end of the tax year). Since your contributions are made with pre-tax dollars, your current taxable income is lowered.

You may be able to open a traditional IRA and deduct the full $3,000 ($3,500 if you are age 50 or older by the end of the tax year) maximum IRA contribution if you are not age 70 or older during the tax year and if you have earned income of at least that amount. If you are married and file jointly, you may each contribute up to $3,000 ($3,500 if age 50 or older) to an IRA as long as your combined earned income covers the contributions.

If you are an active participant in an employer-sponsored plan for 2003, you still may be able to deduct the full $3,000 ($3,500 if age 50 or older) if you are a single filer and your modified adjusted gross income (AGI) is $40,000 or less ($60,000 or less for couples filing jointly). Deductibility of IRA contributions phases out as your AGI rises from $40,000 to $50,000 for single filers and $60,000 to $70,000 for couples filing jointly.

The maximum IRA contribution for an individual who is not an active participant in an employer-sponsored plan, but whose spouse is an active participant, phases out at AGI between $150,000 and $160,000.

7. Update Flexible Spending Accounts

Many companies offer flexible spending accounts that enable you to set aside pretax dollars for qualified healthcare costs. If you have a healthcare flexible spending account, be aware that you forfeit any money left unspent in your account at the end of the year. As long as you expend money on eligible healthcare items by December 31, you can be reimbursed from your account after year-end. Order extra contact lenses, schedule an extra dental cleaning, or stock up on prescription medications.

8. Shift Income

In 2003, you and your spouse together can gift up to $22,000 of assets free of federal gift tax to each of your children. The benefit of shifting the income on those assets to children under 14 is limited since unearned income beyond $1,500 is taxed at the parents’ marginal rate. But for children 14 and older, all income (earned and unearned) is taxed at the child’s marginal rate.

9. Stock Up on Supplies if You’re a Teacher

Eligible educators who work at least 900 hours during a school year may deduct up to $250 of qualified expenses for purchases of books and classroom supplies. This is an “above the line” deduction, which means that you don’t have to itemize in order to claim this tax break. Be sure to save the receipts to substantiate your expenses.

10. Organize Your Tax Records

Organizing your tax records and paperwork early gives you time to request copies of any missing documents and makes it less likely that you will miss valuable deductions when you file your 2003 tax return. If you are unsure of the documents you need to complete and support your tax return or to take advantage of other tax-savings opportunities, consult a CPA.

The Virginia Society of CPAs is the leading professional association dedicated to enhancing the success of all CPAs and their profession by communicating information and vision, promoting professionalism, and advocating members’ interests. Founded in 1909, the Society has nearly 8,000 members who work in public accounting, industry, government and education. This Money Management column and other financial news articles can be found in the Press Room on the VSCPA Web site at

Lifetime Financial Planning, LLC

Dean Knepper, CPA, CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ professional

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